In order to achieve a more sustainable grain storage management throughout Europe it is required to start from assessing the information already available from earlier research and field experiences and to convert it to a more user-friendly format. Nowadays no clear data, tools or information are available for the assessment of the risk of insect-resistance to liquid Grain Storage PPP’s. This lack of information results that in the end the silo operator applies a “black-box”-approach when it comes to the management of his grain storage: the operator applies techniques and products as he assumes fits his purpose and comes out as the cheapest solution, without being able to “predict” the outcome. In case resistance would appear it is only noted when the damage is done. 

This is why a first step of the project is to collect and combine all available information in a decision-supporting tool (grain protection decision-making & anti-resistant strategies)– including input from stakeholders and (international) experts. The evaluation will be done of the current situation of the occurrence of resistance of storage pests to the pesticides used in the EU regions and different types of agri-food facilities. In a second phase, also the evaluation of the effectiveness of new juvenoid (e.g. JHA-type IGR – Juvenile Hormone Analogue-type Insect Growth Regulator) products for resistant pests to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides and to phosphine fumigant will be performed. Ultimately also the contribution for mitigation of risk of neurotoxic insecticides and toxic fumigants by partial replacement using the novel larvicide product with favorable mammalian toxicology profile containing an oil-based carrier from renewable origin. 

Along the project, the model will be updated based on the research performed in the other work packages, as this includes the development of a novel ULV-larvicide and novel application techniques. 

Resistance assessment & decision tool development: research and compilation of available information on PPP-resistance in a user-friendly tool or model. (Only those active substances that can be used as ULV will be assessed.) The combination with other common and/or upcoming storage management techniques will also be evaluated. This tool will provide for each storage management technique (including different active substances) information on the risks for PPP- resistance. The tool will not “model” concrete numbers or figures (though it will provide ranges and indicative numbers), but will be more focusing on an “easy-access”-tool for information supply. By providing all information, it will be easier for the involved stakeholders to make well- supported decisions on management techniques.

The objective is to evaluate the current situation of the occurrence of resistance of storage pests to the pesticides used in EU regions and different types of agri-food facilities and the effectiveness of new juvenoid products for resistant pests to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides and to phosphine fumigant. The objective is also to establish pest control decision-making procedures for pest control decision-making and anti-resistant strategies which will enable the end-users to select efficient preparation in terms of current resistance to insecticides in the EU. Another objective is to contribute to the mitigation of risk of neurotoxic insecticides and toxic fumigants by partial replacement using a larvicide product with favorable mammalian toxicology profile containing plant oil-based carriers from renewable origin. 

Partial objectives are screening of resistance of storage pests to gaseous insecticides with the active substance hydrogen phosphorus (PH3) to target species of primary and secondary stored product pests, screening of resistance of storage pests to the currently used residual neurotoxic insecticides (in EU) with the active substance deltamethrin belonging to the pyrethroid insecticide group and pirimiphos methyl belonging to organophosphate insecticide group, testing and evaluation of resistance of different pest species and strains conducted according to (i) geographical areas; and (ii) type of business – agricultural holdings (i.e. warehouses on smaller farms, large commercial commodity warehouses) and food businesses (i.e. mills). A final partial objective is the summary evaluation of the efficacy of new juvenoid-based products on resistant species and strains of stored product pests and establishment anti-resistant strategies and pest control decision- making procedure for efficient pest management.